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Introduction - Denmark:




Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the European Unions Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.

Location - Denmark:


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn)

Geographic coordinates

56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references



total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,394 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark (the Jutland Peninsula, and the major islands of Sjaelland and Fyn), but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries

total: 68 km
border countries: Germany 68 km


7,314 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers


low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Yding Skovhoej 173 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand

Land use

arable land: 52.59%
permanent crops: 0.19%
other: 47.22% (2005)

Irrigated land

4,490 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment current issues

air pollution, principally from vehicle and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes and pesticides

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen

People - Denmark:


5,468,120 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.6% (male 520,669/female 494,228)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,817,757/female 1,792,974)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 363,828/female 478,664) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 40.1 years
male: 39.2 years
female: 40.9 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.311% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

10.91 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

2.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.053 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.014 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.977 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 80.41 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.74 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.2% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

5,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)


noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups

Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali


Evangelical Lutheran 95%, other Christian (includes Protestant and Roman Catholic) 3%, Muslim 2%


Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government - Denmark:

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Copenhagen
geographic coordinates: 55 40 N, 12 35 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

metropolitan Denmark - 5 regions (regioner, singular - region); Hovedstaden, Midtjylland, Nordjylland, Sjaelland, Syddanmark
note: an extensive local government reform merged 271 municipalities into 98 and 13 counties into five regions, effective 1 January 2007


first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday

none designated; Constitution Day, 5 June (1849) is generally viewed as the National Day


5 June 1953 constitution allowed for a unicameral legislature and a female chief of state

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 November 2001)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Legislative branch

unicameral Peoples Assembly or Folketinget (179 seats, including 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe Islands; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 8 February 2005 (next to be held in February 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 29%, Social Democrats 25.9%, Danish Peoples Party 13.2%, Conservative Party 10.3%, Social Liberal Party 9.2%, Socialist Peoples Party 6%, Unity List 3.4%, other 3%; seats by party - Liberal Party 52, Social Democrats 47, Danish Peoples Party 24, Conservative Party 18, Social Liberal Party 17, Socialist Peoples Party 11, Unity List 6; note - does not include the two seats from Greenland and the two seats from the Faroe Islands

Judicial branch

Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democrats [Bodil KORNBEK] (was Christian Peoples Party); Conservative Party [Bendt BENDTSEN] (sometimes known as Conservative Peoples Party); Danish Peoples Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN]; Red-Green Unity List [collective leadership] (bloc includes Left Socialist Party, Communist Party of Denmark, Socialist Workers Party); Social Democratic Party [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT]; Social Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Socialist Peoples Party [Villy SOEVNDAL]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Friis Arne PETERSEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador James P. CAIN
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] 33 41 71 00
FAX: [45] 35 43 02 23

Flag description

red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Economy - Denmark:

Economy overview

The Danish economy has in recent years undergone strong expansion fueled primarily by private consumption growth, but also supported by exports and investments. This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Unemployment is low and capacity constraints are limiting growth potential. Denmark is a net exporter of food and energy and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus. Government objectives include streamlining the bureaucracy and further privatization of state assets. The government has been successful in meeting, and even exceeding, the economic convergence criteria for participating in the third phase (a common European currency) of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), but Denmark has decided not to join 12 other EU members in the euro. Nonetheless, the Danish krone remains pegged to the euro. Economic growth gained momentum in 2004 and the upturn continued through 2006. The controversy over caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad printed in a Danish newspaper in September 2005 led to boycotts of some Danish exports to the Muslim world, especially exports of dairy products, but the boycotts did not have a significant impact on the overall Danish economy. Because of high GDP per capita, welfare benefits, a low Gini index, and political stability, the Danish living standards are among the highest in the world. A major long-term issue will be the sharp decline in the ratio of workers to retirees.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$201.5 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$257.3 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

3.2% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$37,000 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 24.6%
services: 74% (2006 est.)

Labor force

2.91 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 3%
industry: 21%
services: 76% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.8% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 24% (2000 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

23.2 (2002)

Inflation rate consumer prices

1.8% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

22.2% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $147 billion
expenditures: $138.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $4.6 billion (2006 est.)

Public debt

28.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

barley, wheat, potatoes, sugar beets; pork, dairy products; fish


iron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

Industrial production growth rate

2.5% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

43.35 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity consumption

36.41 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity exports

13.72 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity imports

6.77 billion kWh (2006)

Oil production

342,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil consumption

171,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil exports

320,000 bbl/day (2006)

Oil imports

164,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)

Oil proved reserves

1.32 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)

Natural gas production

9.87 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas consumption

4.824 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas exports

4.964 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

99.99 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Current account balance

$4.941 billion (2006 est.)


$93.93 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

machinery and instruments, meat and meat products, dairy products, fish, pharmaceuticals, furniture, windmills

Exports partners

Germany 17.4%, Sweden 14.2%, UK 8.9%, US 6.2%, Norway 5.4%, Netherlands 5.1%, France 4.9% (2006)


$89.32 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, raw materials and semimanufactures for industry, chemicals, grain and foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports partners

Germany 21.3%, Sweden 14.2%, Norway 6.5%, Netherlands 6.2%, UK 5.6%, China 5%, France 4.4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$30.38 billion (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donor

ODA, $2.13 billion (2005)

Debt external

$405 billion (30 June 2006)

Currency code

Danish krone (DKK)

Exchange rates

Danish kroner per US dollar - 5.9468 (2006), 5.9969 (2005), 5.9911 (2004), 6.5877 (2003), 7.8947 (2002)

Communications - Denmark:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

3.098 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

5.841 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network, 4 cellular mobile communications systems
international: country code - 45; 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (1997)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

26 (plus 51 repeaters) (1998)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

2.416 million (2006)

Internet users

3.171 million (2006)

Transportation - Denmark:


92 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 3 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 64
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 61 (2006)


condensate 12 km; gas 3,931 km; oil 626 km; oil/gas/water 2 km (2006)


total: 2,839 km
standard gauge: 2,839 km 1.435-m gauge (601 km electrified) (2006)


total: 72,257 km
paved: 72,257 km (includes 1,032 km of expressways) (2005)


400 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 293 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,986,735 GRT/9,936,431 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 63, chemical tanker 48, container 86, liquefied gas 4, livestock carrier 2, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 40, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 4
foreign-owned: 25 (Canada 1, Germany 13, Greece 5, Greenland 1, Norway 3, Sweden 1, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 409 (Antigua and Barbuda 14, Bahamas 59, Belgium 4, Cayman Islands 5, Cyprus 1, Egypt 1, Estonia 2, France 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Gibraltar 1, Hong Kong 6, Isle of Man 53, North Korea 1, Liberia 8, Lithuania 10, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 1, Mexico 2, Netherlands 9, Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 32, Panama 34, Portugal 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 14, Singapore 52, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 4, UK 46, US 24, Vanuatu 6, Venezuela 3, Vietnam 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Aalborg, Aarhus, Asnaesvaerkets, Copenhagen, Elsinore, Ensted, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Frederikshavn, Kalundborg, Odense, Roenne

Military - Denmark:

Military branches

Defense Command: Army Operational Command, Admiral Danish Fleet, Island Command Greenland, Tactical Air Command (2006)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscripts serve an initial training period that varies from 4 to 12 months according to specialization; reservists are assigned to mobilization units following completion of their conscript service; women eligible to volunteer for military service (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,175,108
females age 18-49: 1,150,627 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 955,168
females age 18-49: 935,643 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 31,317
females age 18-49: 29,558 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.5% (2006; 1.28% 2007 est.; 1.24% 2008 projected)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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