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Introduction - Turkey:
BackgroundModern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or Father of the Turks. Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a post-modern coup - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) - now known as the Peoples Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish militarys attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the groups leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
Location - Turkey:
LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Areatotal: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline7,200 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremeslowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land usearable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)
Irrigated land52,150 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noahs Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
People - Turkey:
Population71,158,647 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 24.9% (male 9,034,731/female 8,703,624)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 24,627,270/female 23,857,507)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 2,253,383/female 2,682,132) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.6 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 28.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.04% (2007 est.)
Birth rate16.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate6 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.032 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.019 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 38.33 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.88 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 75.46 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsNA
Hiv aids deathsNA
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groupsTurkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
ReligionsMuslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
LanguagesTurkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
Government - Turkey:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government typerepublican parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holidayRepublic Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution7 November 1982
Legal systemcivil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a single seven-year term; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes in the third round of voting on 28 August 2007, after failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law in the first two rounds
note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Legislative branchunicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 November 2002 (next to be held on 4 November 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for his becoming prime minister on 14 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, GP 7.3%, Anavatan 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and other 14.9%; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2006 - AKP 354, CHP 154, Anavatan 21, DYP 4, SHP 1, HYP 1, GP 1, independents 9, vacant 5
Judicial branchConstitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leadersAnavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Ahmet TURK]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); Peoples Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican Peoples Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic Peoples Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004
Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists and Businessmens Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists and Businessmens Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participationAsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
Economy - Turkey:
Economy overviewTurkeys dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkeys export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-06. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low but climbed back to 9.8% in 2006. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-06, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high debt. Prior to 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market.
Gdp purchasing power parity $635.6 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $358.5 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.3% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $9,000 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 11.2%
industry: 29.4%
services: 59.4% (2006 est.)
Labor force24.8 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 35.9%
industry: 22.8%
services: 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
Unemployment rate10.2% plus underemployment of 4% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line20% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 30.7% (2000)
Distribution of family income gini index42 (2003)
Inflation rate consumer prices 9.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 20.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $112.3 billion
expenditures: $121.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt64.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Industriestextiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate5.5% (2006 est.)
Electricity production143.3 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption140.3 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity exports1.1 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports500 million kWh (2004)
Oil production50,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption715,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil exports112,600 bbl/day (2004)
Oil imports724,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves300 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production688 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption22.6 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports21.73 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance-$25.99 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$85.21 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesapparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports partnersGermany 11.4%, UK 8%, Italy 7.9%, US 5.9%, France 5.4%, Spain 4.3% (2006)
Imports$120.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports partnersRussia 12.7%, Germany 10.6%, China 7%, Italy 6.3%, France 4.8%, US 4.3%, Iran 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$53.42 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$193.6 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipientODA, $635.8 million (2002)
Currency code Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005
Exchange ratesTurkish liras per US dollar - 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003), 1.5072 (2002)
note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira
Communications - Turkey:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use18.978 million (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular43.609 million (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by 3 submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code.tr
Internet hosts1.313 million (2006)
Internet users12.284 million (2006)
Transportation - Turkey:
Airports117 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 89
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 28
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Heliports18 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 4,621 km; oil 3,543 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 426,906 km
paved: 177,550 km (includes 1,892 km of expressways)
unpaved: 249,356 km (2004)
Waterways1,200 km (2005)
Merchant marinetotal: 545 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,772,864 GRT/7,313,070 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 109, cargo 239, chemical tanker 50, container 24, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 24, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 7 (Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Italy 3, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 411 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 8, Bahamas 8, Belize 11, Cambodia 26, Comoros 11, Dominica 3, Georgia 30, Isle of Man 3, North Korea 4, Liberia 1, Libya 2, Malta 123, Marshall Islands 20, Netherlands Antilles 9, Panama 42, Russia 63, Saint Kitts and Nevis 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 8, Tuvalu 2, UK 2, unknown 3) (2006)
Ports and terminalsAliaga, Ambarli, Eregli, Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Toros
Military - Turkey:
Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri, TDK; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri, THK) (2006)
Military service age and obligation20 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 20-49: 16,756,323
females age 20-49: 16,051,706 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 20-49: 13,905,901
females age 20-49: 13,335,812 (2005 est.)
Military notein the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; a subsequent overhaul has produced highly mobile forces with greatly enhanced firepower in accordance with NATOs new strategic concept (2005)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 679,734
females age 20-49: 659,090 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp5.3% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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