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Introduction - Nigeria:
BackgroundBritish influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government faces the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the defusing longstanding ethnic and religious tensions are a priority if Nigeria is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Although the April 2003 elections were marred by some irregularities, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. General elections in April 2007 were considered significantly flawed by Nigerian and international observers but they marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the countrys history. President Umaru Musa YARADUA took office on 29 May 2007.
Location - Nigeria:
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area comparativeslightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline853 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatevaries; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrainsouthern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land usearable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
Irrigated land2,820 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; flooding
Environment current issuessoil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notethe Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
People - Nigeria:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.2% (male 28,726,380/female 28,301,729)
15-64 years: 54.7% (male 37,543,678/female 36,277,038)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,987,521/female 2,194,818) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.7 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 18.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.379% (2007 est.)
Birth rate40.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate16.68 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.015 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.906 male(s)/female
total population: 1.022 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 95.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 102.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 88.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 47.44 years
male: 46.83 years
female: 48.07 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate5.45 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate5.4% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids3.6 million (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths310,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)
Ethnic groupsNigeria, Africas most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
ReligionsMuslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
LanguagesEnglish (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Government - Nigeria:
Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 12 N, 7 11 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitutionnew constitution adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal systembased on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Umaru Musa YARADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umaru Musa YARADUA (since 29 May 2007)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Umaru Musa YARADUA elected president; percent of vote - official results not yet posted as of May 2007
Legislative branchbicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011); House of Representatives - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - official results not yet posted as of May 2007; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - official results not yet posted as of May 2007
Judicial branchSupreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Political parties and leadersAction Congress or AC [Bisi AKANDE]; Advanced Congress of Democrats or ACD [Alex ANIELO]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Alh Modu SHERIF]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Umara AHMED]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Movement for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Ahmadu ALI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [disputed leadership]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Professor George A. OBIOZOR
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador John CAMPBELL
embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205
FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
Economy - Nigeria:
Economy overviewOil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigerias former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africas most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the countrys four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMFs Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt - relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigerias total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. GDP rose strongly in 2006, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices.
Gdp purchasing power parity $191.4 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $83.36 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.3% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,500 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 17.3%
industry: 53.2%
services: 29.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force48.99 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate5.8% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line60% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income gini index50.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate consumer prices 10.5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 26.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $17.86 billion
expenditures: $19.05 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt10.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industriescrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate-1.6% (2006 est.)
Electricity production19.06 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption17.71 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports20 million kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production2.451 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption290,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves36.25 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas production21.8 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption9.21 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports12.59 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves4.984 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$12.59 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$59.01 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiespetroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports partnersUS 49.9%, Spain 8.1%, Brazil 6.3%, France 4.3% (2006)
Imports$25.1 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports partnersChina 10.6%, US 8.3%, Netherlands 5.9%, UK 5.7%, France 5.5%, Germany 4.5%, Brazil 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$42.97 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$6.278 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$250 million (1998)
Currency code naira (NGN)
Exchange ratesnairas per US dollar - 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002)
Communications - Nigeria:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use1.688 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular32.322 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network has been slow due to faltering efforts at privatization
domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth of this service; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; 4 wireless (GSM) service providers operate nationally; the combined growth resulted in a sharp increase in teledensity reported to be over 18% in March 2006
international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stationsAM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts1,549 (2006)
Internet users8 million (2006)
Transportation - Nigeria:
Airports69 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 18 (2006)
Heliports1 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 126 km; gas 2,812 km; liquid petroleum gas 125 km; oil 4,278 km; refined products 3,517 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 3,505 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 194,394 km
paved: 60,068 km
unpaved: 134,326 km (1999)
Waterways8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2007)
Merchant marinetotal: 52 ships (1000 GRT or over) 277,709 GRT/475,414 DWT
by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 5, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 36, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 4 (Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Singapore 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cambodia 2, Comoros 2, Panama 7, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, unknown 2) (2006)
Ports and terminalsBonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos, Port Harcourt
Military - Nigeria:
Military branchesNigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 26,802,678
females age 18-49: 25,668,446 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 15,052,914
females age 18-49: 13,860,806 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 1,353,180
females age 18-49: 1,329,267 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 6,051 (Liberia)
IDPs: undetermined (communal violence between Christians and Muslims since President OBASANJOs election in 1999; displacement is mostly short-term) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.5% (2006)
Disputes internationalJoint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commissions admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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