Moldova

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Introduction - Moldova:
CountryMoldova
BackgroundFormerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a Transnistria republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
Location - Moldova:
LocationEastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatemoderate winters, warm summers
Terrainrolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremeslowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resourceslignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land usearable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
Irrigated land3,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardslandslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment current issuesheavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
People - Moldova:
Population4,320,490 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 16.5% (male 365,733/female 347,305)
15-64 years: 72.6% (male 1,520,094/female 1,616,014)
65 years and over: 10.9% (male 175,113/female 296,231) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 34 years
male: 32.1 years
female: 36.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate-0.11% (2007 est.)
Birth rate10.88 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate10.85 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.053 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.591 male(s)/female
total population: 0.912 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 13.88 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 70.2 years
male: 66.51 years
female: 74.11 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.2% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids5,500 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 300 (2001 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groupsMoldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
ReligionsEastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
LanguagesMoldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.6% (2005 est.)
Government - Moldova:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Chisinau (Kishinev)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Independence27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitutionnew constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal systembased on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001); First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001; cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Legislative branchunicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Judicial branchSupreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leadersChristian Democratic Peoples Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Dumitru DIACOV]; National Liberal Party or NLP [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Party for Social Democracy or PSD [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Nicolae CHIRTOACA
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Michael D. KIRBY
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
Flag descriptionsame color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
Economy - Moldova:
Economy overviewMoldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldovas dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldovas separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russias Gazprom cut off natural gas to Moldova in disputes over pricing. The economy achieved 6% or more GDP growth every year from 2000-05, though this was based largely on consumption fueled by remittances received from Moldovans working abroad. Russias decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, slowed GDP growth in 2006 and greatly exacerbated Moldovas economic troubles. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls; nevertheless, the governments primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors. Also, the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldovas Transnistria region continues to be a drag on the Moldovan economy.
Gdp purchasing power parity $9.07 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $2.574 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate4% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $2,000 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 21.5%
industry: 22%
services: 56.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force1.339 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 40.7%
industry: 12.1%
services: 47.2% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate7.3%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line29.5% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 26.4% (2003)
Distribution of family income gini index33.2 (2003)
Inflation rate consumer prices 14.1% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 24.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.318 billion
expenditures: $1.335 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt84.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsvegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Industriessugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate6.9% (2006 est.)
Electricity production1.229 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity consumption4.203 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity exports130 million kWh (2004)
Electricity imports2.9 billion kWh (2005)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption2.17 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports2.17 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$561 million (2006 est.)
Exports$1.02 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesfoodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports partnersRussia 22.5%, Germany 12%, Italy 10.9%, Romania 10.5%, Ukraine 9.4%, Belarus 5.6% (2006)
Imports$2.65 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports partnersRussia 21.9%, Ukraine 17.8%, Romania 9.6%, Germany 9.2%, Italy 6.4%, Poland 4.6% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$680 million (2006 est.)
Debt external$2.142 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$6.376 billion (2003)
Currency code Moldovan leu (MDL)
Exchange rateslei per US dollar - 13.131 (2006), 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002)
Communications - Moldova:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use1.018 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular1.358 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; 2 private operators of GSM mobile cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; license for 1 CDMA mobile telephone network currently being tendered
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik (2006)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 2, FM 29, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations40 (2006)
Internet country code.md
Internet hosts58,886 (2006)
Internet users727,700 (2006)
Transportation - Moldova:
Airports12 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 606 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 12,733 km
paved: 10,976 km
unpaved: 1,757 km (2004)
Waterways424 km (on Dniester and Prut rivers) (2007)
Merchant marinetotal: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,831 GRT/15,003 DWT
by type: cargo 7
foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2006)
Military - Moldova:
Military branchesNational Army: Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 12-month service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,066,459
females age 18-49: 1,117,070 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 693,913
females age 18-49: 911,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 43,729
females age 18-49: 42,354 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp0.4% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalMoldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldovas break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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