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Introduction - Macedonia:
BackgroundMacedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greeces objection to the new states use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonias Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
Location - Macedonia:
LocationSoutheastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than Vermont
Land boundariestotal: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatewarm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrainmountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremeslowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resourceslow-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land usearable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)
Irrigated land550 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardshigh seismic risks
Environment current issuesair pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
People - Macedonia:
Population2,055,915 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 19.8% (male 210,418/female 195,884)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 715,997/female 704,739)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 99,892/female 128,985) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 34.4 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 35.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.263% (2007 est.)
Birth rate12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female
total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 9.53 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.21 years
male: 71.73 years
female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsless than 200 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groupsMacedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
ReligionsMacedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
LanguagesMacedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)
Government - Macedonia:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: Peoples Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Independence8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holidayIlinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijahs Day
Constitutionadopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Legal systembased on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Legislative branchunicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 33%, SDSM 22%, BDI/DUI 12%, PDSh/DPA 7%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 6%, other 14%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2
Judicial branchSupreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leadersDemocratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Arben XHAFERI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Peoples Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Party-New Democratic Forces or PDK-FRO [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Future [Alajdin DEMIRI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leadersFederation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag descriptiona yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
Economy - Macedonia:
Economy overviewAt independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the countrys constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leaderships commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-06. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has lagged the region in attracting foreign investment, and job growth has been anemic. Macedonia has an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.
Gdp purchasing power parity $16.94 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $6.225 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate3.1% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $8,300 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 9%
industry: 29%
services: 62% (2006 est.)
Labor force899,000 (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 21.7%
industry: 32.6%
services: 45.7% (September 2006)
Unemployment rate36% (September 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line30% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income gini index28.2 (1998)
Inflation rate consumer prices 3% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 9.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.234 billion
expenditures: $2.284 billion; including capital expenditures of $24 million (2006 est.)
Public debt41.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsgrapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Industriesfood processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate3.4% (2006 est.)
Electricity production5.935 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity consumption8.929 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2006)
Electricity imports2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil consumption23,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$167 million (2006 est.)
Exports$2.341 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesfood, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports partnersSerbia and Montenegro 23.2%, Germany 15.6%, Greece 15.1%, Italy 9.9%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Croatia 5.2% (2006)
Imports$3.631 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports partnersRussia 15.1%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 8.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 7.5%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Italy 6% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.867 billion (November 2006)
Debt external$2.285 billion (November 2006)
Economic aid recipient$NA
Currency code Macedonian denar (MKD)
Exchange ratesMacedonian denars per US dollar - 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003), 64.35 (2002)
Communications - Macedonia:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use490,900 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular1.417 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389
Radio broadcast stationsAM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country
Internet hosts3,716 (2006)
Internet users268,000 (2006)
Transportation - Macedonia:
Airports17 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 268 km; oil 120 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999)
Military - Macedonia:
Military branchesArmy of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 498,259
females age 18-49: 481,317 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 411,156
females age 18-49: 397,839 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 16,686
females age 18-49: 15,664 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp6% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Serbia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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