Hong kong

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Introduction - Hong Kong:


Hong Kong


Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its one country, two systems formula, Chinas socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.

Location - Hong Kong:


Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Geographic coordinates

22 15 N, 114 10 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 1,092 sq km
land: 1,042 sq km
water: 50 sq km

Area comparative

six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 30 km
regional border: China 30 km


733 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm


subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall


hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Elevation extremes

lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

Natural resources

outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use

arable land: 5.05%
permanent crops: 1.01%
other: 93.94% (2001)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards

occasional typhoons

Environment current issues

air and water pollution from rapid urbanization

Environment international agreements

party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)

Geography note

more than 200 islands

People - Hong Kong:


6,980,412 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13% (male 476,089/female 434,326)
15-64 years: 74% (male 2,515,518/female 2,652,660)
65 years and over: 12.9% (male 419,479/female 482,340) (2007 est.)

Dependency status

special administrative region of China

Median age

total: 41.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 41.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.561% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

7.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

4.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.096 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.948 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.956 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.68 years
male: 78.99 years
female: 84.6 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

0.98 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

2,600 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 200 (2003 est.)


noun: Chinese/Hong Konger
adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong

Ethnic groups

Chinese 94.9%, Filipino 2.1%, other 3% (2001 census)


eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%


Chinese (Cantonese) 89.2% (official), other Chinese dialects 6.4%, English 3.2% (official), other 1.2% (2001 census)


definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 93.5%
male: 96.9%
female: 89.6% (2002)

Government - Hong Kong:

Country name

conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Hong Kong
local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu
local short form: Xianggang
abbreviation: HK

Government type

limited democracy

Administrative divisions

none (special administrative region of China)


none (special administrative region of China)

National holiday

National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the Peoples Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day


Basic Law, approved in March 1990 by Chinas National Peoples Congress, is Hong Kongs mini-constitution

Legal system

based on English common law


direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 200,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies

Executive branch

chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
head of government: Chief Executive Donald TSANG (since 24 June 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of 14 official members and 15 non-official members
elections: chief executive elected for five-year term by 800-member electoral committee; last held on 25 March 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Donald TSANG elected chief executive receiving 84.1% of the vote; Alan LEONG received 15.9%

Legislative branch

unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; in 2004 30 seats indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 30 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - pro-democracy 63%, pro-Beijing 37%; seats by party - (pro-Beijing 34) DAB 12, Liberal Party 10, FTU 1, independents 11; (pro-democracy 25) Democratic Party 9, CTU 2, ADPL 1, Frontier Party 1, NWSC 1, independents 11; non-voting LEGCO president 1

Judicial branch

Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Political parties and leaders

Association for Democracy and Peoples Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Civic Party [KUAN Hsin-chi]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [MA Lik]; Democratic Party [Albert HO]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]
note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party

Political pressure groups and leaders

Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-China) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHAN, exco member]

International organization participation

APEC, AsDB, BIS, ICC, IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITUC, UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCL, WCO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

none (special administrative region of China)

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Consul General James B. CUNNINGHAM
consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 1, FPO AP 96521-0006
telephone: [852] 2523-9011
FAX: [852] 2845-1598

Flag description

red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center

Economy - Hong Kong:

Economy overview

Hong Kong has a free market economy highly dependent on international trade. The territory has become more closely linked to mainland China over the past few years. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997, it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Hong Kongs service industry over the past decade has grown rapidly as its manufacturing industry has moved to the mainland. Hong Kong also has stepped up its efforts to gain approval to offer more mainland financial services in a bid to remain competitive with Chinas growing financial centers. Hong Kongs natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Gross imports and exports (including reexports to and from third countries) each exceed GDP in dollar value. Per capita GDP exceeds that of the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% from 1989 to 2006, but Hong Kong suffered two recessions in the past eight years because of the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 and the global downturn in 2001-02. Although the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 also battered Hong Kongs economy, a solid rise in exports, a boom in tourism from the mainland because of Chinas easing of travel restrictions, and a return of consumer confidence resulted in the resumption of strong growth from late 2003 through 2006. Moreover, several large initial public offerings of Chinese companies on the Hong Kong stock exchange since late 2005 have helped to boost Hong Kongs status as a financial hub and have contributed to the improved performance of the market in late 2006.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$258.8 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$188.7 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

6.8% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$37,300 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 9%
services: 90.9% (2006 est.)

Labor force

3.63 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

manufacturing 7.5%, construction 2.9%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 43.9%, financing, insurance, and real estate 19.6%, transport and communications 7.1%, community and social services 18.8%
note: above data exclude public sector (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.9% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

52.3 (2001)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.2% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

21.1% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $35.16 billion
expenditures: $33.02 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (2006 est.)

Public debt

1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

fresh vegetables; poultry, pork; fish


textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks

Industrial production growth rate

4% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

38.45 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity consumption

44.55 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity exports

4.497 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity imports

10.39 billion kWh (2005)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

285,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

26,090 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

344,200 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas consumption

2.2 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

2.524 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

$20.9 billion (2006 est.)


$611.6 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

electrical machinery and appliances, textiles, apparel, footwear, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones, printed material

Exports partners

China 47%, US 15.1%, Japan 4.9% (2006)


$329.8 billion (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

raw materials and semi-manufactures, consumer goods, capital goods, foodstuffs, fuel (most is re-exported)

Imports partners

China 45.9%, Japan 10.3%, Taiwan 7.5%, Singapore 6.3%, US 4.8%, South Korea 4.6% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$132 billion (November 2006 est.)

Debt external

$472.9 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Currency code

Hong Kong dollar (HKD)

Exchange rates

Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.7678 (2006), 7.7773 (2005), 7.788 (2004), 7.7868 (2003), 7.7989 (2002)

Communications - Hong Kong:

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Telephones main lines in use

3.85 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

9.356 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network
international: country code - 852; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Radio broadcast stations

AM 5, FM 9, shortwave 0 (2004)

Television broadcast stations

55 (2 TV networks, each broadcasting on 2 channels) (2006)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

800,834 (2006)

Internet users

3.77 million (2006)

Transportation - Hong Kong:


3 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)


3 (2006)


total: 1,955 km
paved: 1,955 km (2005)

Merchant marine

total: 924 ships (1000 GRT or over) 30,838,025 GRT/51,957,682 DWT
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 495, cargo 121, chemical tanker 44, container 133, liquefied gas 22, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 76, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 7, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 562 (Australia 1, Belgium 3, Canada 28, China 274, Denmark 6, Germany 6, Greece 27, Indonesia 4, Japan 67, South Korea 6, Norway 26, Philippines 16, Portugal 1, Singapore 24, Syria 1, Taiwan 6, UAE 2, UK 43, US 21)
registered in other countries: 417 (Bahamas 8, Belize 8, Bermuda 10, Cambodia 15, China 7, Cyprus 1, France 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Greece 1, Honduras 2, India 1, Liberia 37, Malaysia 14, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 7, Norway 55, Panama 169, Philippines 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, Singapore 50, Taiwan 3, Tuvalu 8, unknown 7) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Hong Kong

Military - Hong Kong:

Military branches

no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of Chinas Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) includes elements of Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,743,972
females age 18-49: 1,904,967 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 1,403,088
females age 18-49: 1,527,278 (2005 est.)

Military note

defense is the responsibility of China

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 40,343
females age 18-49: 38,234 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp


Disputes international


This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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