Cambodia

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Introduction - Cambodia:
CountryCambodia
BackgroundMost Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863. Cambodia became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the remaining Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed.
Location - Cambodia:
LocationSoutheastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Areatotal: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundariestotal: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline443 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climatetropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrainmostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremeslowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resourcesoil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land usearable land: 20.44%
permanent crops: 0.59%
other: 78.97% (2005)
Irrigated land2,700 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsmonsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment current issuesillegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography notea land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
People - Cambodia:
Population13,995,904
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 34% (male 2,405,561/female 2,355,404)
15-64 years: 62.4% (male 4,234,701/female 4,500,994)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 189,090/female 310,154) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.3 years
male: 20.6 years
female: 22.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.729% (2007 est.)
Birth rate25.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate8.24 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.021 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 58.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 61.29 years
male: 59.27 years
female: 63.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate3.12 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate2.6% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids170,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths15,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)
Ethnic groupsKhmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
ReligionsTheravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
LanguagesKhmer (official) 95%, French, English
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.6%
male: 84.7%
female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
Government - Cambodia:
Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, Peoples Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
Government typemultiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Capitalname: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh (Phnom Penh), Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)
Independence9 November 1953 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitutionpromulgated 21 September 1993
Legal systemprimarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 October 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in practice named by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Legislative branchbicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2008); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2 (January 2006)
Judicial branchSupreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Political parties and leadersCambodian Peoples Party or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [KEV PUT REAKSMEI]; Norodom Ranariddh Party or NRP [Norodom RANARIDDH]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACCT, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design
Economy - Cambodia:
Economy overviewIn 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, the government made progress on economic reforms. The US and Cambodia signed a Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and established a bonus for improving working conditions and enforcing Cambodian labor laws and international labor standards in the industry. From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector and tourism. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced producing countries such as China and India. Better-than-expected garment sector performance led to more than 13% growth in 2006. Faced with the possibility that its vibrant garment industry, with more than 200,000 jobs, could be in serious danger, the Cambodian government has committed itself to a policy of continued support for high labor standards in an attempt to maintain favor with buyers. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly, with foreign visitors surpassing 1 million per year beginning in 2005. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodias territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream for the government once commercial extraction begins in the coming years. Mining also is attracting significant investor interest, particularly in the northeastern parts of the country. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government is working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the countrys many pressing needs. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodias demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.
Gdp purchasing power parity $37.73 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $6.6 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate7.2% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $2,700 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 35%
industry: 30%
services: 35% (2004)
Labor force7 million (2003 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 75%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate2.5% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income gini index40 (2004 est.)
Inflation rate consumer prices 5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 18.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $731 million
expenditures: $931.8 million; including capital expenditures of $291 million (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsrice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca
Industriestourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate22% (2002 est.)
Electricity production131 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption121.8 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports100 million kWh (2005)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption3,750 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$369 million (2006 est.)
Exports$3.38 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesclothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports partnersUS 63%, Germany 10%, UK 4.6% (2006)
Imports$4.446 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiespetroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports partnersThailand 32.3%, China 18%, Hong Kong 14.3%, Singapore 11.8% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.385 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$3.664 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$504 million pledged in grants and concession loans for 2005 by international donors
Currency code riel (KHR)
Exchange ratesriels per US dollar - 4,103 (2006), 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08 (2002)
Communications - Cambodia:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use32,800 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular1.14 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: NA
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 2, FM 17, shortwave NA (2003)
Television broadcast stations9 (including 2 TV relay stations with French and Vietnamese broadcasts); excludes 18 regional relay stations (2006)
Internet country code.kh
Internet hosts1,378 (2006)
Internet users44,000 (2005)
Transportation - Cambodia:
Airports20 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Heliports2 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 602 km
narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 38,257 km
paved: 2,406 km
unpaved: 35,851 km (2004)
Waterways2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2005)
Merchant marinetotal: 544 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,777,907 GRT/2,529,708 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 41, cargo 443, chemical tanker 11, container 10, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 19, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 407 (Bulgaria 1, Canada 6, China 128, Cyprus 12, Egypt 8, Gabon 1, Greece 8, Hong Kong 15, Indonesia 1, Japan 4, South Korea 23, Latvia 2, Lebanon 6, Nigeria 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Russia 105, Singapore 4, Spain 1, Syria 20, Taiwan 2, Turkey 26, UAE 1, Ukraine 17, US 8, Yemen 3, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsPhnom Penh, Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville)
Military - Cambodia:
Military branchesRoyal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2005)
Military service age and obligationconscription law of October 2006 requires all males between 18-30 to register for military service; 18-month service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 3,002,718
females age 18-49: 3,108,254 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,955,141
females age 18-49: 2,048,611 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 175,497
females age 18-49: 172,788 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3% (2005 est.)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Cambodia is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor; a significant number of women and children are trafficked to Thailand and Malaysia for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; men are trafficked primarily to Thailand for forced labor in the construction and agricultural sectors, particularly the fishing industry, while women and girls are trafficked for factory and domestic work; children are trafficked to Vietnam and Thailand for the purpose of forced begging; Cambodia is a transit and destination point for women from Vietnam trafficked for sexual exploitation; trafficking for sexual exploitation also occurs within Cambodias borders, from rural areas to the cities
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is committed to making significant efforts to sustain progress over the coming year
Disputes internationalSoutheast Asian states must maintain border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and claims of Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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