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Introduction - Botswana:
BackgroundFormerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the countrys conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the worlds highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africas most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
Location - Botswana:
LocationSouthern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatesemiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrainpredominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremeslowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resourcesdiamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land usearable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.34% (2005)
Irrigated land10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment current issuesovergrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
People - Botswana:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 35.8% (male 330,377/female 319,376)
15-64 years: 60.3% (male 549,879/female 545,148)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 28,725/female 42,003) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.9 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.503% (2007 est.)
Birth rate23.17 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate13.63 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate5.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.034 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.009 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.684 male(s)/female
total population: 1.003 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 43.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 45.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 50.58 years
male: 51.55 years
female: 49.58 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate37.3% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids350,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths33,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)
Ethnic groupsTswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
ReligionsChristian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)
LanguagesSetswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.2%
male: 80.4%
female: 81.8% (2003 est.)
Government - Botswana:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government typeparliamentary republic
Capitalname: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast, Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Independence30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
ConstitutionMarch 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal systembased on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998); Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Festus G. MOGAE (since 1 April 1998); Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63 seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%, BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1
Judicial branchHigh Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leadersBotswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 312782
Flag descriptionlight blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
Economy - Botswana:
Economy overviewBotswana has maintained one of the worlds highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966, though growth slowed to 4.7% in 2006. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of more than $11,000 in 2006. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially was 23.8% in 2004, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten Botswanas impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond mining production overshadows long-term prospects.
Gdp purchasing power parity $17.94 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $9.761 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.4% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $10,900 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 2.4%
industry: 46.9% (including 36% mining)
services: 50.7% (2003 est.)
Labor force288,400 formal sector employees (2004)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate23.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line30.3% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income gini index63 (1993)
Inflation rate consumer prices 11.4% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 21.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $4.256 billion
expenditures: $3.968 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt7.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productslivestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industriesdiamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate6.3% (2006 est.)
Electricity production823 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption2.464 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports1.699 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption11,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil imports13,490 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance$1.698 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$4.836 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesdiamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Exports partnersEuropean Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2006)
Imports$3.034 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesfoodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports partnersSouthern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$7.445 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$520 million (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$73 million (1995)
Currency code pula (BWP)
Exchange ratespulas per US dollar - 5.8447 (2006), 5.1104 (2005), 4.6929 (2004), 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002)
Communications - Botswana:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
Telephones main lines in use136,900 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular979,800 (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast
international: country code - 267; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts5,499 (2006)
Internet users60,000 (2005)
Transportation - Botswana:
Airports85 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 75
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 55
under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 24,355 km
paved: 8,914 km
unpaved: 15,441 km (2004)
Military - Botswana:
Military branchesBotswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2006)
Military service age and obligation18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 350,649
females age 18-49: 361,642 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 136,322
females age 18-49: 136,315 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 21,103
females age 18-49: 21,379 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3.3% (2006)
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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