Antigua and Barbuda

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Introduction - Antigua and Barbuda:
CountryAntigua and Barbuda
BackgroundThe Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Location - Antigua and Barbuda:
LocationCaribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates17 03 N, 61 48 W
Map referencesCentral America and the Caribbean
Areatotal: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Area comparative2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline153 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrainmostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremeslowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resourcesNEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land usearable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)
Irrigated landNA
Natural hazardshurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Environment current issueswater management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography noteAntigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
People - Antigua and Barbuda:
Population69,481 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.3% (male 9,647/female 9,306)
15-64 years: 69% (male 24,137/female 23,801)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 965/female 1,625) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 30.3 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 30.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.527% (2007 est.)
Birth rate16.62 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate5.31 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.037 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.014 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.594 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 18.26 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.42 years
male: 70.03 years
female: 74.94 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateNA
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsNA
Hiv aids deathsNA
Nationalitynoun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groupsblack 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
ReligionsAnglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
LanguagesEnglish (official), local dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA%
female: NA% (2003 est.)
Government - Antigua and Barbuda:
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government typeconstitutional parliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Saint Johns
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution1 November 1981
Legal systembased on English common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13
Judicial branchEastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
Political parties and leadersAntigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda Peoples Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda Peoples Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leadersAntigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; Peoples Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participationACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the usthe US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Flag descriptionred, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
Economy - Antigua and Barbuda:
Economy overviewTourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nations agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
Gdp purchasing power parity $1.145 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $905 million (2005 est.)
Gdp real growth rate3.8% (2005 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $10,900 (2005 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 3.8%
industry: 22%
services: 74.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force30,000 (1991 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate11% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 0.9% (2005 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industriestourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rateNA%
Electricity production105 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption97.65 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption3,800 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$83.4 million (2004)
Exports$46.81 million (2004 est.)
Exports commoditiespetroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Exports partnersSpain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2006)
Imports$378 million (2004 est.)
Imports commoditiesfood and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports partnersUS 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5% (2006)
Debt external$427.3 million; note - data are for public external debt, not total external debt (2000)
Economic aid recipient$1.65 million (2004)
Currency code East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Exchange ratesEast Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7 (2002)
note: fixed rate since 1976
Communications - Antigua and Barbuda:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
Telephones main lines in use40,000 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular102,000 (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; coaxial submarine cable - 1; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Radio broadcast stationsAM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations2 (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts2,231 (2006)
Internet users32,000 (2006)
Transportation - Antigua and Barbuda:
Airports3 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
Merchant marinetotal: 1,011 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,452,503 GRT/9,783,309 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 596, chemical tanker 7, container 321, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 21
foreign-owned: 984 (Australia 1, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia 2, Denmark 14, Estonia 12, France 1, Germany 858, Iceland 8, Isle of Man 2, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 11, NZ 1, Poland 3, Russia 6, Singapore 1, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 8, UK 7, US 7, Vietnam 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsSaint Johns
Military - Antigua and Barbuda:
Military branchesRoyal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 18,952
females age 18-49: 18,360 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 14,859
females age 18-49: 14,947 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 507
females age 18-49: 494 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdpNA (2006)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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