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Introduction - Canada:

BackgroundA land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services, as well as responding to separatist concerns in predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

Location - Canada:
LocationNorthern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map referencesNorth America

Areatotal: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km

Area comparativesomewhat larger than the US

Land boundariestotal: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline202,080 km

Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climatevaries from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

Terrainmostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resourcesiron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land usearable land: 4.57%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 94.78% (2005)

Irrigated land7,850 sq km (2003)

Natural hazardscontinuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the countrys rain and snow east of the mountains

Environment current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography notesecond-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border

People - Canada:
Population33,390,141 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure0-14 years: 17.3% (male 2,967,383/female 2,824,189)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 11,604,723/female 11,490,839)
65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,927,035/female 2,575,972) (2007 est.)

Median agetotal: 39.1 years
male: 38.1 years
female: 40.2 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate0.869% (2007 est.)

Birth rate10.75 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate7.86 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate5.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.051 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.748 male(s)/female
total population: 0.977 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 80.34 years
male: 76.98 years
female: 83.86 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate1.61 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.3% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids56,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths1,500 (2003 est.)

Nationalitynoun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groupsBritish Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%

ReligionsRoman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)

LanguagesEnglish (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government - Canada:
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Government typeconstitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation

Capitalname: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada is divided into six time zones

Administrative divisions10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK)

National holidayCanada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitutionmade up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments

Legal systembased on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage18 years of age; universal

Executive branchchief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 102, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2; seats by party as of February 2007 - Conservative Party 125, Liberal Party 100, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2

Judicial branchSupreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)

Political parties and leadersBloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]

Political pressure groups and leadersNA

International organization participationACCT, AfDB, APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMOVIC, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson
consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)

Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag descriptiontwo vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white

Economy - Canada:
Economy overviewAs an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs about 85% of Canadian exports. Canada is the US largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power.

Gdp purchasing power parity $1.178 trillion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate $1.088 trillion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate2.7% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp $35,600 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 2.3%
industry: 29.2%
services: 68.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force17.59 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupationagriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3% (2004)

Unemployment rate6.4% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line15.9%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Distribution of family income gini index33.1 (1998)

Inflation rate consumer prices 2% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed 21.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budgetrevenues: $183.5 billion
expenditures: $181.8 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)

Public debt65.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture productswheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Industriestransportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate0.7% (2006 est.)

Electricity production573 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption522.4 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports33.01 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports22.48 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production3.135 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil consumption2.294 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil exports2.274 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports1.185 million bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves178.8 billion bbl
note: includes oil sands (1 January 2005 est.)

Natural gas production183.6 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption95.85 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports104 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports10.86 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves1.603 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance$20.56 billion (2006 est.)

Exports$405 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commoditiesmotor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports partnersUS 82.3%, UK 2.2%, Japan 2.1% (2006)

Imports$353.2 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports partnersUS 55.1%, China 8.7%, Mexico 4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$35.79 billion (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donorODA, $2.6 billion (2004)

Debt external$684.7 billion (30 June 2006)

Currency code Canadian dollar (CAD)

Exchange ratesCanadian dollars per US dollar - 1.1334 (2006), 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002)

Communications - Canada:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March

Telephones main lines in use20.78 million (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular17.017 million (2005)

Telephone systemgeneral assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stationsAM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)

Television broadcast stations80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code.ca

Internet hosts3.934 million (2006)

Internet users22 million (2005)

Transportation - Canada:
Airports1,337 (2006)

Airports with paved runwaystotal: 509
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 151
914 to 1,523 m: 248
under 914 m: 77 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 828
1,524 to 2,437 m: 66
914 to 1,523 m: 355
under 914 m: 407 (2006)

Heliports12 (2006)

Pipelinescrude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2005)

Railwaystotal: 48,068 km
standard gauge: 48,068 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)

Roadwaystotal: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2005)

Waterways636 km
note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2007)

Merchant marinetotal: 173 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,129,243 GRT/2,716,340 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 10, chemical tanker 9, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 8
foreign-owned: 7 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, US 2)
registered in other countries: 111 (Australia 1, Bahamas 18, Barbados 8, Cambodia 6, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 28, Liberia 2, Malta 18, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 4, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6, US 4, Vanuatu 5) (2006)

Ports and terminalsFraser River Port, Halifax, Montreal, Port-Cartier, Quebec, Saint Johns (Newfoundland), Sept-Isles, Vancouver

Military - Canada:
Military branchesCanadian Forces: Land Forces Command, Maritime Command, Air Command, Canada Command (homeland security) (2006)

Military service age and obligation16-34 years of age for voluntary military service; women comprise approximately 11% of Canadas armed forces (2006)

Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 8,216,510
females age 16-49: 8,034,939 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 6,740,490
females age 16-49: 6,580,868 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 223,821
females age 16-49: 212,900 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp1.1% (2005 est.)

Disputes internationalmanaged maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>